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In today's environment, there are many questions about "religion". Of those who are asking these questions, some turn to books on theology. There are many.
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This being is God. A similar cosmological argument is advanced around the same time by Samuel Clarke , see also the entry on Samuel Clarke. David Hume advances three objections to the type of cosmological argument offered by Leibniz and Clarke Hume , Part IX, and the entry Hume on religion.

The first is that the notion of absolutely necessary existence is problematic. Suppose that some being is absolutely necessary—then its nonexistence should be absolutely inconceivable.

An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

He replies that an analogous point can be made about matter: for all we know, if we truly understood the nature of matter, we would be unable to conceive its nonexistence. This would show that the existence of matter is not contingent after all, and that it does not require an external explanation.

Thus the cosmological argument cannot establish that God is the necessary being who is responsible for the rest of the cosmos. In reply, it seems quite possible to conceive of a non-temporal causal relation, and thus to conceive of God, from outside of time, causing a series of contingent beings that has always existed. Indeed, this view is common in the theological tradition.

Similarly, Kant and various contemporary metaphysicians think we can coherently conceive of a relation of simultaneous causation. If this is right, then even a God who is in time could ground the existence of a series of contingent beings with no temporal beginning. Since there is no first being, there will be a causal explanation for every contingent being on the basis of previously existing contingent beings. However, if each individual contingent being has a causal explanation, then the entire causal series has an explanation.

For wholes are nothing over and above their parts:. Part IV. A reply to this last objection might be that even if one has explained in this way the existence of each individual in the contingent series, one still has not answered the two questions mentioned earlier: Why is there a world at all rather than none?

Kant, too, objects to the cosmological argument, but mainly on the grounds that it delivers an object that is inadequate to the classical conception of God. In general, objections to the cosmological argument both historical and contemporary take one of the following forms:.

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Teleological arguments are often associated with William Paley — , although in fact this type of argument has a much longer history see Taliaferro Likewise with nature as a whole. A different kind of teleological argument is developed by George Berkeley — , for whom natural, physical objects do not exist independently of minds, but consist solely in ideas. Given the regularity, complexity, and involuntariness of our sensory ideas, their source Berkeley argues must be an infinitely powerful, benevolent mind that produces these ideas in us in a lawlike fashion.

Since according to Berkeley our ordinary experience is a type of direct divine communication with us, our relationship with God is in this respect especially intimate. Thus he frequently remarks, quoting St. One response to these objections is that the teleological argument should be conceived as an argument to the best explanation, on the model of many scientific arguments.

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In that case the analogy need not be exact, but might still show that a theistic explanation is best. Indeed, even Hume, or at least his character Philo, concedes. Part XII. But Philo also affirms that we cannot infer any important similarities between humans and the author of nature beyond intelligence, and in particular we cannot infer some of the divine attributes that are most important for sustaining traditional theistic religion Part V.

Most significantly, given the evil that there is in the universe, we cannot conclude that its designer has the moral qualities traditional religion requires God to have Part X. If order and apparent design in the material universe are explained by divine intelligence, what explains the order and apparent design that give rise to intelligence in the divine mind?

By dint of the reasoning employed in the teleological argument, it would have to be a super-divine intelligence.

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But what explains the order and apparent design that give rise to super-divine intelligence? In scientific theorizing it is no decisive objection against an explanation that it contains entities that are themselves not adequately explained. Crucial to the value of scientific explanations is that they supply an explanatory advance , and we can reasonably believe that a theory does so without our having in hand adequate explanations for all of the entities it posits.

William Lane Craig see e. The world is conditioned principally by the values of the fundamental constants:. When one imagines different values to these constants or forces, one discovers that in fact the number of observable universes, that is to say, universes capable of supporting intelligent life, is very small. Just a slight variation in any one of these values would render life impossible. It has been estimated that the strong force must be within 0.

But if it had been much weaker, then we should have had a universe entirely of helium. Or again, if gravitation aG had been a little greater, all stars would have been red dwarfs, which are too cold to support life-bearing planets. If it had been a little smaller, the universe would have been composed exclusively of blue giants, which burn too briefly for life to develop. This gives us reason to believe that there is an intelligent agent who fine-tuned the universe to precisely these levels. Thus it is not surprising that we do not observe such features.

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Here is his analogy. Suppose you are dragged before a firing squad of trained marksmen, all of them with rifles aimed at your heart, to be executed. The command is given; you hear the deafening sound of the guns. And you observe that you are still alive, that all of the marksmen missed! Now while it is true that. Similarly, while we should not be surprised that we do not observe features of the universe which are incompatible with our existence, it is nevertheless true that. John Leslie proposes that the hypothesis of multiple universes would provide the explanation demanded by 5 although he is also an advocate of a fine-tuning argument.

Here is his analogy which involves guns again, oddly. You are alone at night in an extremely dark forest when a gun is fired from far away and you are hit. If you assume that there is no one out to get you, this would be surprising. In that case, Leslie suggests, you would be less surprised at being shot, since it seems a least somewhat likely that a gunman would be trying to shoot someone in the crowd.

Leslie suggests that this story supports the multiple universe explanation for the fact that the values of the fundamental forces of the universe appear fine-tuned for life. While the multiple-universe hypothesis would explain why there is some universe or other that is fine-tuned for life , since it would raise the probability of that hypothesis, it would not similarly explain why this universe is fine-tuned for life.

He contends that supposing that the gunman was firing at random, being part of a large crowd explains—raises the probability— that someone or other is shot , but not that you are shot. By contrast, the hypothesis that the gunman was aiming at you, as opposed to firing at random, does explain in this way that you are shot.

Similarly, the multiple universe hypothesis explains in this way that there is some universe or other that is fine-tuned for life , but not that this universe is fine-tuned for life. By contrast, the hypothesis of a designer does explain why—raises the probability—that this universe is fine-tuned for life. White argues:. Postulate as many other universes as you wish, they do not make it any more likely that ours should be life-permitting or that we should be here.

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So our good fortune to exist in a life-permitting universe gives us no reason to suppose that there are many universes. White Some such thinkers, then, might construe an argument from religious experience as belonging to the category of natural religion or natural theology. In any case, most authors who write about religious experience generally construe it as caused by something other than our ordinary faculties and their intersubjectively available objects, and thus do not think of it as one of the topics of natural theology see Alston A few of these efforts involve a priori argumentation: an ancient argument for the Trinity found in St.

Augustine De Trinitate , c. Victor De Trinitate , c.

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  7. Numerous other philosophers and also many natural scientists appeal to historical and scientific data as well as empirical and statistical principles of reasoning to support the authenticity of various biblical claims, the probability of various miracle stories, and so forth see e. Note that this is a way of appealing to the content of sacred texts and special revelation which is consistent with the methods of natural theology: the prophetic or historical claims of those texts are evaluated using public evidence and accepted canons of inductive reasoning. Still, even such optimistic natural theologians as Locke, Paley, Swinburne, and these others count as hybridists insofar as they think that there are some important doctrines about the divine or supernatural that cannot be justified by our natural cognitive faculties.

    Prolegomenal Considerations 1. A priori arguments 2. This book will inspire a new generation of Christian leaders who will answer the yearnings of all of us for authentic community. This book is a much-needed antidote to the endemic alienation of our time. Missionary grow home! God has a sense of place, and when followers of Jesus share life together and put down roots in a specific location, they become something new, something that has the power to transform and energize that community.

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